Telangana turns to solar power – Issues RFS for 500 MW

The Telangana government is placing its bets on the sun to help it tide over the energy crisis. With the state enjoying nearly 300 days of sunshine each year, the Telangana southern and northern power distribution companies have decided to go ahead with a proposal to set up a 500 MW capacity solar power plant in Adilabad district.

“The TSSPDCL has called for Request for Selection to set up solar power units through competitive bidding. The bids would be finalized by the end of September and the solar power units will become operational within 10 months,” TSSPDCL director (projects) T Srinivas told TOI.

The selected bidder would set up the solar power generation units by getting all clearances and permissions from local bodies and the Centre. Energy measurement, billing and accounting of energy distributed would be done by the power distribution companies. The developers would set up the units on build-own-operate basis and supply power through inter connectivity to the substations for a period of 25 years. This is the first time that the state is moving ahead with a concrete plan to add solar power to the energy generation mix in the state.

All the 10 districts of Telangana have been reeling under power shortages, especially during the past few months. Even during the monsoon, the power distribution companies (discoms) have been imposing three to six hour power cuts both in urban and rural areas. With the demand from the agriculture sector not being met adequately, farmers have been attacking electricity sub-stations in various parts of the state for failing to provide uninterrupted power supply.

“The five districts- Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy, Medak, Nalgonda and Mahbubnagar- under TSSPDCL need 4,000 MW per day while the current allocation is only 3,500 to 3,600 MW,” a chief general manager of TSSPDCL said.

Since the state is unable to meet the energy demand through existing thermal and hydel power stations, and a very poor monsoon is complicating the energy requirement scenario, chief minister K Chandrasekhar Rao had previously asked the discoms to explore utilization of solar power and other sources. The solar power units would have inter-connectivity through 33 kv, 132 kv and 220 kv sub-stations.

More thermal power expected

Meanwhile, officials are hopeful of adding another 1,200 MW of thermal power in the state by next year with the Singareni Collieries Company Limited expected to set up two thermal power stations of 600 MW capacity each in Jaipur mandal in Adilabad district. Official sources said though the plants are expected to be ready only in November 2015, the chief minister reportedly directed the SCCL officials to speed up the works and begin generation in the first quarter of 2015.

Source: TOI

Click here for the RFS document

Posted in DISCOM, Grid Connected, India, PV, Renewables, Solar, Telangana, Transmission and Distribution | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , ,

India rooftop solar subsidy finally released, but industry says better off without

Installers are having to charge more for solar to mitigate the costs of chasing the subsidy, or risk of non-payment and delays.

India’s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has finally received funds to pay a 30% subsidy promised to rooftop solar installations.

The 30% subsidy is to help reduce the cost of a total of 25MW of rooftop installations, on government rooftops, of 3-100kW in size. Despite the development some installers look set to shun the scheme in the future, owing to the uncertainty.

The announcement on 12 August has been eagerly awaited following previous deferred payments creating a back log of projects viable for funding, and delaying new projects.

The 30% subsidy also previously applied for installations up to 500kW in size, but budgetary constraints lowered the upper limit to 100kW. No residential solar is included in the 25MW subsidy’s budget allocation.

To be eligible for the subsidy, projects must have completed installation (meeting the MNRE criteria) and payments have no bearings on other JNNSM schemes for solar projects.

The financial support was awarded from India’s National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF), created by charging carbon fuel producers. The funding is for off-grid and decentralised solar installations for 2014-2015, totalling INR142.5 crore (US$26.8 million) in subsidy payments for all government buildings.

The total cost of 25MW of solar installations, according to MNRE was INR475 crore (US$78.2 million).

In March it was announced that MNRE is to have its budget slashed. The 2014-2015 MNRE budget is US$72 million, down from US$246 million allocated last year.

Last year, due to long processes for awards, MNRE only disbursed US$69 million, out of its US$246 million budget.

Talking to PV Tech, local rooftop installer, Zolt Energy’s Pradeep Palleli, said the company is yet to receive the subsidy approval. “Announcing subsidies and not releasing it in time is really a major hurdle hindering the growth of the rooftop solar industry.

“Customers, installers and integrators like us have been fed up with the delays for the last 8-10 months.”

Zolt Energy has now “done away” with applying for subsidies for off-grid installations, said Palleli.

The scheme was “riddled with the elections, and a shortage of funds and with a huge backlog already, we are unsure when approval and funds might be released”, said Palleli.

Although the subsidy scheme can reduce the amount of time it takes solar customers to pay back the up front costs of a solar installation, the knock on effect of installers rising system prices to mitigate for the risks of delayed, and non-payment, and then extra costs in paying staff to chase up subsidy payments means “ultimately, customers may not get much benefit due to subsidy”.

Palleli also explains the trouble with customers now expecting a subsidy “even customers who can comfortably afford the investment are looking for a subsidy”.

“It’s a little difficult to get the subsidy picture out of customers’ minds and we think that the government can do more good by removing subsidy altogether and either provide generation based incentive, or probably cheaper loans to customers,” Palleli added.

The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)’s subsidy scheme resulted in thousands of small PV installations last year. However this year, the number dropped significantly due to a lack of payments from the 40% subsidy promised under the scheme, according to Palleli.

Zolt Energy has tried to find alternative financing with independent financiers, with up to 18 month payment schemes.

Palleli explains the value of off-grid solar systems, providing comfort in reliability and alternative power during the grid’s frequent blackouts, should be pay back enough.

Solar analyst, Bridge to India said in a newsletter the subsidy is “doing more harm than good” for the rooftop solar market in India and 25MW is only a small section of the growing rooftop solar industry.

Bridge to India also produced a model with no subsidies, and calculated the rooftop solar market would add 47MW for 2014 – a 66% growth rate till 2018, with a total of 1.6GW of rooftop solar deployed. The current subsidy “stifles the development of this market by creating an expectation among power consumers that often cannot be met” the consultancy firm said.

“Everyone is waiting for a subsidy that may never come and the market is put on hold,” said Bridge to India.

Instead, Zolt Energy is now offering customers a mechanism of Equated Monthly Instalments (EMI) with a separate financing company.

Palleli reiterates that solar should not be subsidised based solely on the “environmental damage and natural capital lost due to usage of non-renewable sources of energy”.

“It has to be the product that solves the customers’ issues and at the same time, makes them feel like a proud owner of an uber-cool, state-of-the-art energy solution. That’s what we are trying to do.”

MNRE estimated with the subsidy, it may be possible to generate power between INR5.0 -INR6.50 per unit (US$0.08-0.10), for 20 years. This is cheaper than diesel-based electricity, and could also be cheaper than grid priced electricity.

Bridge to India estimated that unsubsidised grid connected rooftop solar installations are priced at roughly INR75 (US$1.23) per kW, for most 30kW solar systems.

Installers with access to subsidies are quoting the much higher, INR90 (US$1.48) per kW, while if the 30% subsidy is received, the price after payment then goes down to INR65 (US$1.07) per kW.

According to the MNRE announcement, the subsidy is to be reviewed in six months time.

Bridge to India has recommended the government “should scrap the MNRE rooftop subsidy mechanism altogether and instead use these funds for cheaper and more accessible financing for the sector or even expanding the scope of rooftop scheme”.

MNRE said it is to continue to subsidise rooftop solar in June, the announcement on 26 June was one of the first moves regarding solar energy by the newly elected government of India.

Source: PV Tech

Posted in Crystalline, Grid Connected, India, MNRE, PV, Renewables, Residential, Rooftop, Rural Lighting, Solar, Subsidy, Thin Film | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , ,

Piyush Goyal stays clear of issue of anti-dumping levy on solar gear

Staying clear of the demand for imposition of anti-dumping duty on solar equipment imports, Power Minister Piyush Goyal today said the ministry concerned will take an appropriate decision on the matter.

“I am minister for renewable energy. I am focusing in my mission and vision. The subject of anti-dumping relates to other ministry, which will take an appropriate call as and when it is required,” he told reporters after meeting a delegation of solar power equipment makers and developers who are demanding imposition of anti-dumping duty on solar equipment imports.

To protect the struggling domestic industry, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry in May had recommended imposing a restrictive duty in the range of $0.11-0.81 per watt on solar cells imported from the US, China, Malaysia and Chinese Taipei.

While the designated authority in the Department of Commerce recommends the anti dumping duty, provisional or final, it is the Ministry of Finance which acts upon such recommendation within three months and imposes levies.

Goyal in the past had said domestic solar power equipment manufacturing capacity of 700-800 MW is not sufficient to meet the government’s ambitious plans of adding more power generation capacity through renewable energy sources.

Road Transport Minister Nitin Gadkari had written to Commerce Minister Nirmala Sitharaman opposing plans to levy of anti-dumping duty, saying this would escalate the cost of solar power in the country.

Meanwhile, Power Secretary P K Sinha said: “Solar power should contribute to supplying electricity to the transmission grid. For that the government should give incentives to the developers.”

He said that the companies setting up conventional power plants should also be asked to set up renewable power projects in order to have a better conventional and non conventional sources mix.

Solar power capacity addition is possible if aggressive support comes from banks, K N Subramaniam, CEO, Moser Baer Solar said in his presentation.

He added roof top solar in cities will go a long way in promoting solar power.

Sumant Sinha, Founder, ReNew Power, said let there be stability in policies so that we can encourage greater participation in the sector.

The government is of the view that solar power can become viable if produced on a large scale. The base price for solar projects can be kept low so that these projects can sustain themselves without the requirement of subsidy.

India’s solar mission aims to add 20,000 MW of grid-connected solar capacity by 2022. The country’s current installed solar capacity exceeds 2,600 MW.

Source: ET

Posted in Renewables, Solar, News, PV, Solar Policy, Cells & Modules, Grid Connected, Anti Dumping Duty, Anti-Dumping, India | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Solar generators in Karnataka are exempt from ‘wheeling & banking’ fees – Solar energy projects commissioned up to March 31, 2018 are eligible to get the exemption for a period of 10 years

In an effort to promote solar energy generation in the state, the Karnataka Electricity Regulatory Commission (KERC) has exempted solar power generators from paying the wheeling and banking charges, and cross-subsidy surcharge for 10 years from the date of commissioning of their generating units.

This exemption will serve as an incentive to solar power generation units in the state for units established up to March 31, 2018, the KERC said in a statement.

The wheeling and banking charges applicable to renewable energy is about 7 per cent of the power generated and transmitted under open access and wheeling while the cross subsidy surcharge ranges from 7 paise to Rs 4.75 per unit. Exemption from these charges will enable solar power to be sold in the market to open access users at competitive rates, KERC said.

This exemption will enable solar energy producers to save around Rs 3.10 per unit and provide them with the level playing field with other power producers. It will also help them to secure project finance from banks for long-term, a KERC official said.

KERC in its order dated October 10, 2013 had decided not to levy any wheeling and banking charges and cross subsidy surcharge to the solar generators who sell electricity on open access within the state of Karnataka. It was further specified that the exemption is available up to March 31, 2018.

Subsequently, some of the stakeholders sought clarification on certainty of the period of such exemption beyond March 31, 2018, to attract investments and obtain project finance from banks and financial institutions. To address these concerns, the commission issued a discussion paper on July 7, 2014 inviting comments and suggestions from stakeholders. It also held public hearing on the matter on July 31, 2014.

“After considering the view of the stakeholders, the commission notes that at present the cost of generation of solar power being higher than other sources of renewable energy, it is necessary that exemption of wheeling and banking charges and cross subsidy surcharge is extended to solar power generators to enable them to market their power on open access basis,” KERC said in the statement.

While several stakeholders had asked for an exemption from these charges for the period of debt repayment, estimated at 12 years to 15 years, the commission has considered a nominal debt repayment period of 10 years for plants commissioned between April 1, 2014 and March 31, 2018.

The commission issued the order on August 18, 2014 which will be applicable to solar generators selling power to consumers within the state on open access basis for a period of 10 years from the date of commissioning. The benefit of the order is available to projects commissioned during the period from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2018. This exemption is also extended to captive solar plants for self-consumption within the state, KERC added.

Presently, the state has an installed capacity of 45 Mw of solar energy and another 150 Mw projects are in their various stages of commissioning and go on stream in the next two years. Besides these, the state government has envisaged generation of another 1,000 Mw solar energy by 2018 in its new solar energy policy.

The cost of solar energy generation has come down to about Rs 8-9 crore per Mw compared to Rs 12-14 crore a few years ago. The companies sell solar power at Rs 7.50 per unit to Rs 9 per unit depending on the type of solar energy.

Source: Business Standard

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Posted in Grid Connected, India, Karnataka, Power Generation, Renewables, Solar, Solar Policy | Tagged , , , , , ,

Government aims to add 10,000 MW per year to lift wind energy sector

Ritesh: Another ill conceived move to pacify wind industry lobbyists which will impact the growth of Solar in the country for a poor source of energy.

The government plans to rapidly accelerate wind energy generation, adding an ambitious 10,000 MW every year, or five times the total new capacity that came up in the last fiscal, as the Modi government takes steps to reduce India’s dependence on costly energy imports.

Wind energy, which had been overshadowed by solar projects in recent years, got a big boost as the government has restored key tax incentives that had helped India emerge as one of the top countries in the world in generating electricity from wind. The government feels that tax incentives coupled with conducive environment will rapidly accelerate wind energy.

“Originally, the country planned to install 18,500 MW during the 12th Plan period. However, new government is keen to go faster in wind power capacity addition, to reduce its dependence on imported fuels and increase the share of environment friendly energy resources.

At a recent meeting with turbine makers and other stakeholders New and Renewable Energy Minister Piyush Goyal suggested to add 10,000 MW of wind power installations annually,” said a government official requesting anonymity. He added ministry and wind turbine makers will jointly study the status of grid availability in six states with maximum wind velocity.

According to Indian Wind Turbine Manufacturers Association (IWTMA) proposed target is achievable as the country has capacity to manufacture close to 9,500 MW of wind turbines and it can be expanded in short period.

“Wind turbine makers are capable to meet proposed higher targets of the government. Higher volumes will bring down average cost of installations and even tariff to make wind power more attractive. By resolving issues related to wind power evacuation and renewable power purchase obligations of the state utilities, India can attract domestic investments in the sector that is getting increasing attention of global investments,” said IWTMA chairman Madhusudan Khemka, who is MD of Chennai-based Regen Powertech.

Like other power gear makers, Indian wind turbine makers too are facing competition from Chinese counterparts that also offer cheaper finance to the investors in wind energy. Khemka said Indian wind turbine makers with access to best technologies and services are globally competitive but they are unable to offer cheaper finance like Chinese firms.

With installed capacity of over 21,000 Mw, India is fifth-largest wind power producer in the world after China, US, Germany and Spain. According to Centre for Wind Energy Technology India has potential to install over one lakh mw of wind turbines.

Ministry of new and renewable energy and Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency are jointly planning to host an international meet in February next year to give impetus to the wind power sector. The ministry is also considering organising similar events to boost solar power.

Source: Economic Times

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Posted in Power Generation, Renewables, Wind | Tagged , , , , , , , , ,

MERC finally allows for Solar Open Access in Maharashtra – On Petition filed by M/s Green Energy Association praying for directions against MSEDCL to comply and issue Open Access permissions to the members of the Petitioner

Before the
MAHARASHTRA ELECTRICITY REGULATORY COMMISSION
World Trade Centre, Centre No.1, 13th Floor, Cuffe Parade, Mumbai 400 005
Tel. No. 022 22163964/65/69 Fax. 022 221639761
E-mail: mercindia@merc.gov.in / mercindia@mercindia.org.in
Website: http://www.merc.gov.in / http://www.mercindia.org.in
Case No. 44 of 2014

In the matter of
Petition filed by M/s Green Energy Association praying for directions against MSEDCL to comply with provisions of the Electricity Act, 2003 and MERC (Distribution Open Access) Regulations, 2005 and issue Open Access permissions to the members of the Petitioner.

Smt. Chandra Iyengar, Chairperson
Shri Vijay L. Sonavane, Member

Petitioner : M/s Green Energy Association
Respondents : MSEDCL ——-Respondent No. 1
MEDA ——-Respondent No. 2

See Below for the ruling in favour of Open Access

 Commission’s  Analysis: -

  1. Having heard the parties and after considering the materials placed on record, the Commission analyzed following issues:

1) Open Access permission through solar generator as single source and

2) Open Access permission through more than one source

Issue No.1: Open Access permission through solar generator as single source:-

  1. Petitioner has submitted that the solar power plants were commissioned and the members of the Petitioner who had applied for Open Access permission also submitted commissioning certificates. Admittedly the applications are pending with MSEDCL for a period of more than 121 days and in some cases more than 290 days from the date of Commissioning. Hence, the members of Petitioner are unable to get credit notes.
  1. The Commission enquired MSEDCL about delay for issuing Open Access permissions to the consumers applied for sourcing power from solar generators. MSEDCL submitted that it is allowing the Open Access permissions to consumers availing power supply from Wind, Bagasse, Biomass, Small Hydro Generators as per the Regulations and in terms of the relevant Orders passed by the Commission. The Commission has issued broad directives/guidelines in case of Open Access for this type of RE generators.
  2. In absence of any guidelines regarding Open Access through solar generator, it is not clear whether to pass the benefits such as energy banking, non reduction of contract demand, concessional cross subsidy surcharge given to other RE projects to solar projects also.

11. MSEDCL  has  submitted  the  current  status  of  11  consumers  applied  for  Open  Access permission for availing open Access from solar generators. It has submitted that two nos. of consumers have already granted Open Access permission from wind generator. Whereas eight Nos. of generators has been also permitted Open Access permission for sale of solar energy to Utility (BEST), which is valid upto 31 March, 2014 and one consumer (M/s Patodia Forgings and Gears Ltd.) has been denied to avail Open Access vide letter dated 19 April, 2014.

12. In view of the above facts the Commission is of the view that Open Access is the right of the consumers and it is casted upon by the Electricity Act, 2003. The Electricity Act, 2003 has defined the Open Access as non discriminatory provisions for use of transmission lines or distribution system or associated facilities by any licensee or consumer or person engaged in generation.

13. The plain reading of Section 2(47) and Section 42 (2) of the Electricity Act, 2003 indicates that MSEDCL cannot discriminate amongst different RE sources. Energy is coming from whatever source, it is inject in the system as a Unit. The Commission observes that MSEDCL has allowed open access permission for sale of solar energy to Utility (BEST) for certain period. The Commission disagreed with MSEDCL submission that it delayed the Open Access permission on absence of guidelines/policy for Open Access through solar generator.

14. In view of above the Commission directs MSEDCL to allow the Open Access through solar generator as single source. The Commission also directs MSEDCL to continue the procedures followed for allowing Open Access permissions through RE generators during previous financial year.

15. The Commission further directs MSEDCL to issue credit notes immediately for the previous months, if not done earlier as per timelines as stipulated in its Citizen Charter.

Issue No.2: Open Access permission through more than one source:-

16. MSEDCL  submitted  that  MERC  (Distribution  Open  Access)  Regulations,  2005 do not provide for wheeling of power under Open Access from more than one generating company/ source. MSEDCL submitted that there are operational and billing difficulties for allowing Open Access from more than one source.

17. The provisions of MERC(Distribution Open Access) Regulations, 2005 is reproduced below:-

The Commission shall allow open access to the distribution system of a Distribution Licensee to a Generating Company or a Licensee, other than such Distribution Licensee, to give supply of electricity to a consumer or person, whose premises are situated within the area of supply of the Distribution Licensee, from the date on which such consumer or person, to whom such supply is to be given, becomes eligible for open access in accordance with Regulation 3.1 above:

Provided that the application for open access under this Regulation 3.2 shall be made by the eligible consumer or person, whose premises are situated within the area of supply of the Distribution Licensee, to whom supply is intended to be given by such Generating Company or Licensee.

18. The Commission observed that MSEDCL has denied Open Access permission for sourcing power from more than one source on the ground of operational and billing difficulties which cannot be ignored.

19. Further, MSEDCL submitted  that  it  is  not  against  Open  Access.  MSEDCL’s  denial  to consumers seeking Open Access through more than one source is only on the ground of the operational and billing difficulties faced by it and those cannot be ignored while granting Open Access permissions. These issues need to be addressed by providing Regulation for the same; these issues are not covered under the MERC (Distribution Open Access) Regulations, 2005.

20. In view of above, the Commission is of the opinion that in the present circumstances it is not appropriate to allow Open Access permission through more than one source without considering all relevant factors including operational and billing difficulties involved in it and framing it into  proper  Regulatory  mechanism.  The  Commission  is  in  the  process  of amendment of the existing MERC (Distribution Open Access) Regulations, 2005. The Commission shall endeavor to expedite the process of amendment of MERC (Distribution Open Access) Regulations, 2005 after incorporating the concerns raised by all stakeholders.

Summary of findings:

  1. The plain reading of Section 2(47) and Section 42 (2) of the Electricity Act, 2003 indicate that MSEDCL cannot discriminate amongst different RE sources. Power is coming from whatever source, it is inject in the system as Unit. The Commission observes that MSEDCL has allowed open access permission for sale of solar energy to Utility (BEST) for certain period. The Commission disagreed with MSEDCL submission that it delayed the Open Access permission on absence of guidelines/policy for Open Access through solar generator.
  1. In view of above the Commission directs MSEDCL to allow the Open Access through solar generator as single source. The Commission also directs MSEDCL to continue the procedures followed for  allowing  Open  Access  permissions  through  RE  generators during previous financial year.
  1. The Commission further directs MSEDCL to issue credit notes immediately for the previous months, if not done earlier as per timelines as stipulated in its Citizen Charter.
  1. The Commission is of the opinion that in the present circumstances it is not appropriate to allow Open Access permission through more than one source without considering all relevant factors including operational and billing difficulties involved in it and framing it into proper Regulatory mechanism. The Commission is in the process of amendment of the existing MERC( Distribution Open Access) Regulations, 2005 .The Commission shall endeavor to expedite the process of amendment of MERC (Distribution Open Access) Regulations, 2005 after incorporating the concerns raised by all stakeholders.

With the above, Petition filed by M/s Green Energy Association in Case No. 44 of 2014 stands disposed of.

Sd/-                                                                                             Sd/-

(Vijay L. Sonavane)                                                                              (Chandra Iyengar) Member                                                                                                             Chairperson

Click below for the full order

Order in Case No 44 of 2014

Posted in DISCOM, Maharashtra, MERC, MSEDCL, Renewables, Solar, Transmission and Distribution | Tagged , , , , , ,

RENEWABLES 2014 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT – Key Figures

 

The newly released Renewables 2014 Global Status Report is now available.
Find out what made 2013 another record year for renewables. Read about:

> expansion of supporting policies in developing economies
> additions to electricity generating capacity
> progress made in renewables heating and cooling
> shifts in investments
> leaders in renewable energy deployment

> evolution of the renewable energy field in the last decade

First released in 2005, REN21’s Renewables Global Status Report (GSR) provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment and policy developments worldwide. It enables policymakers, industry, investors and civil society to make informed decisions. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast.

The Renewables Global Status Report relies on up-to-date renewable energy data, provided by an international network of more than 500 contributors, researchers, and authors.

Click here for the complete report

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Figure_1_Estimated_Renewable_Energy_Share_of Global_Final_Energy_Consumtion_2012_oNr Figure_2_AverageGrowth_2014_oNr Figure_3_Electricity_oNr Figure_4_Power_Capacity_2014_oNr Figure_5_Bioenergypath_oNr Figure_6_Woodpellet_2014_oNr Figure_7_Ethanol+Biodiesel_2014_oNr Figure_8_Geothermal_Additions_oNr Figure_9_Geothermal_Addition_2014_oNr Figure_10_Hydropower_Capacity_2014_oNr Figure_11_Hydropower_Addition_2014_oNr Figure_12_Solar_Capacity_2014_oNr Figure_13a_Solar_PV_Addition_2014_oNr Figure_14a_Solar_PV_Investment_2014_oNr Figure_15_CSP_Capacity_2014_oNr Figure_16_SolarWater_Capacity_oNr Figure_17_Solar_WaterHeating_Addition_2014_oNr Figure_18_Solar_WaterHeating_Capacity_2014_oNr Figure_19_Wind_Capacity_2014_oNr Figure_20_Wind_Addition_2014_oNr Figure_21_Wind_Market_2014_oNr Figure_22_Jobs_2014_oNr Figure_23_Investment_Total_Developed_and_Developing2014_oNr Figure_24_Investment_by_Region_2014_oNr Figure_25_Investment_by_Technology_and_Developed_Developing Countries_2014_oNr Figure_26_Policies_oNr_2014 Figure_27_Policies_2005_oNr Figure_28_Number_of_Policies_oNr Figure_29_Share_of_Countries_w_Policies_2014_oNr Figure_30_Policies_Developing_Countries_oNr Figure_31_Electrification_2014_oNr

 

Posted in Biofuels, Biomass, Cogeneration, CSP, Geothermal, Hydro, PV, Renewables, Reports, Solar, Solar Thermal | Tagged , , , , , , , , , ,